Information model and XML binding for the HEAR

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Achievement Information Working Group


THIS PAGE IS SUPERSEDED AND SHOULD NOT BE USED. THE LATEST VERSION OF THE HEAR TECHNICAL SPECIFICATION AS OF MARCH 31ST 2011 MAY BE FOUND AT http://www.xcri.org/wiki/index.php/HEAR



Contents

Terms of Reference

This is a draft for discussion produced by JISC CETIS on behalf of JISC for the HEAR implementation projects. Its content is non-normative and intended for prototyping work carried out by projects and suppliers with a view towards informing specifications in the future.

General Approach

The overall approach we have taken in this document is to develop an application profile of existing specifications for representing HEAR information. The HEAR itself is constituted of these main components:

The components can be either combined into a single composite document, or split into several documents, all of which could be individually shared. For example:

Image:Hear_docs.png

This makes finer-grained access control on documents possible if desired by implementers.

Development of the specification

For the information about the person, we adopt properties defined by the existing MIAP CDD 2.0 Person specification.

For information about the programme and components, we profile the XCRI 1.1 specification. XCRI contains the majority of the information needed for the record, and is being harmonized with other EU specifications into an EU standard for representing course information (EN for Metadata For Learning Opportunities).

Additional properties required the creation of a small number of very limited data models, largely derived from the Dublin Core Element Set.

Development of the profile has also taken account of the evolution of the MIAP Learner Record by LogicaCMG.

The profile for the HEAR has been developed using terms and guidance from the Singapore Framework for application profiles developed by the Dublin Core Metadata Initiative (DCMI-SF).

The HEAR profile presented in this document has been designed with extensibility in mind, and it is likely that institutions, vendors, and other parties will develop their own profiles based on this one, adding in information types suitable for their intended use of the HEAR. However for interoperability purposes, all derived profiles MUST also conform to this profile.

About the base standards used

CDD 2.0 is a UK specification developed by MIAP (Managing Information Across Partners) to harmonize common data models found across different departments and sectors in the UK. The MIAP CDD provides one set of common definitions for basic data related to education, including learners.

XCRI CAP 1.1 is a UK specification developed with the support JISC and JISC CETIS for the description of courses and course units primarily for the purposes of advertising study opportunities. It is the UK profile of the planned European Standard, Metadata For Learning Opportunities.

Dublin Core Element Set is an international specification, ratified as ISO 15836, for common basic metadata elements used for resources, including identifiers, titles, descriptions and other core properties.

Terms Used In This Document

Application Profile
An assemblage of metadata elements selected from one or more metadata schemas and combined in a compound schema.
Provider
A party (person or organisation) that offers learning opportunities or issues achievement reports.
Resource
Anything that might be identified. Familiar examples include an electronic document, an image, a service. Attention is drawn to W3C-RDFS for the detailed definition of this term.
Class
A group containing members that have attributes, behaviours, relationships or semantics in common. Attention is drawn to W3C-RDFS for the detailed definition of this term.
Property
A specific aspect, characteristic, attribute, or relation used to describe resources. Attention is drawn to W3C-RDFS for the detailed definition of this term.
Range
The range of values that may be used for a property. Attention is drawn to W3C-RDFS for the detailed definition of this term.
Domain
The class of resource to which statements using a property may be made. Attention is drawn to W3C-RDFS for the detailed definition of this term.
Sub Property Of
The superclass of a property. Attention is drawn to W3C-RDFS for the detailed definition of this term.
Sub Class Of
The superclass of a class. Attention is drawn to W3C-RDFS for the detailed definition of this term.
Literal
A literal value for a property defined within a statement; this may be a plain literal value (such as a string and language term) or a typed literal value (such as a value and data type specification identifier). Attention is drawn to W3C-RDFS for the detailed definition of this term.
Statement
A combination of a property and a value specified for a resource.
URI
A uniform resource identifier, as defined by IETF-RFC2396.

References

XCRI 1.1
eXchanging Course Related-Information, v1.1. http://xcri.org
MIAP CDD 2.0
MIAP Common Data Definitions http://www.miap.gov.uk/documentlibrary/documents/Common+Data+definitions+and+XML+Schemas.htm
DCMI-SF
DCMI Singapore Framework http://dublincore.org/documents/singapore-framework/
W3C-DTF
W3C DateTime Format
W3C-RDFS
W3C Resource Description Framework Schema Language 1.0 http://www.w3.org/TR/rdf-schema/
IETF-RFC2396
Uniform Resource Identifier
DCMI-TERMS
Dublin Core Metadata Initiative: Terms 1.1
DCMI-DSP
DCMI Description Set Profile http://dublincore.org/documents/2008/03/31/dc-dsp/
UML
Unified Modelling Language, v2.1.2 http://www.omg.org/spec/UML/2.1.2/


Domain Model

The HEAR information model profile consists of an AchievementReport consisting of:

plus one or more of the following:

The diagram below illustrates the domain model in UML format.

Image:Hear_model.png

Classes

URI: TBC#AchievementReport
Label: Achievement Report
Domain: Resource
Range: Class
Definition: A report of the higher education achievement record for an individual learner issued by a learning provider.
Comments:
URI: TBC#Person
Label: Person
Domain: Resource
Range: Class
Definition: The subject of the report.
Comments:
URI: TBC#Transcript
Label: Transcript
Domain: Resource
Range: Class
Definition: The collection of information about the units of achievement of the individual learner as stated by a learning provider
Comments:
URI: TBC#Diploma
Label: Diploma
Domain: Resource
Range: Class
Definition: The collection of information about the achievement at programme level of the individual learner as stated by a learning provider
Comments:

Classes included from the XCRI 1.1 specification

URI: http://xcri.org/profiles/catalog/1.1/provider
Label: Provider
Comments: See http://www.xcri.org/wiki/index.php/Provider
URI: http://xcri.org/profiles/catalog/1.1/course
Label: Course
Comments: See http://www.xcri.org/wiki/index.php/Course
URI: http://xcri.org/profiles/catalog/1.1/presentation
Label: Presentation
Comments: See http://www.xcri.org/wiki/index.php/Presentation
URI: http://xcri.org/profiles/catalog/1.1/qualification
Label: Qualification
Comments: See http://www.xcri.org/wiki/index.php/Qualification
URI: http://xcri.org/profiles/catalog/1.1/credit
Label: Credit
Comments: See http://www.xcri.org/wiki/index.php/Credit


Associations

URI: TBC#hasComponent
Label: Has Component
Domain: http://xcri.org/profiles/catalog/1.1/course
Range: http://xcri.org/profiles/catalog/1.1/course
Definition: A component of the course
Comments:

Description Set Profile

Core definitions

Properties

URI: TBC#result
Label: Result
Domain: Resource
Range: Literal with optional status attribute
Definition: A grade or classification of the actual outcome of the learner for a unit or programme of study.
Comments:
URI: TBC#status
Label: Status
Domain: TBC#result
Range: Literal
Definition: The status of a result
Comments: See the "result status" vocabulary encoding scheme
URI: TBC#furtherStudy
Label: Further Study
Domain: Resource
Range: Description
Sub Property Of: http://xcri.org/profiles/catalog/1.1/description
Definition:
Comments:
URI: TBC#professionalStatus
Label: Professional Status
Domain: Resource
Range: Description
Sub Property Of: http://xcri.org/profiles/catalog/1.1/description
Definition:
Comments:
URI: TBC#accessRequirements
Label: Access Requirements
Domain: Resource
Range: Description
Sub Property Of: http://xcri.org/profiles/catalog/1.1/description
Definition:
Comments:
URI: TBC#gradingScheme
Label: Grading Scheme
Domain: Resource
Range: Description
Sub Property Of: http://xcri.org/profiles/catalog/1.1/description
Definition:
Comments:

Vocabulary Encoding Schemes

Result Status

The status of a result; legal values of this vocabulary are:

Syntax Encoding Types

Literal Any literal value such as a string or a number

Description Encoding Type A description encoding type contains either


Date Encoding Type A Date or DateTime literal conforming to ISO 8601

Label Encoding Type A String literal with an optional language qualifier attribute


Achievement Report

URI Label Cardinality Type Usage
TBC#AdditionalInformation Additional Information 0..1 Description encoding type See HEAR section 6.1
TBC#FurtherInformation Further Information Sources 0..1 Description encoding type See HEAR section 6.2
TBC#Description Description 0..1 Description encoding type General description of the report, such as the "description of the HE system" in See HEAR section 8.
http://purl.org/dc/elements/1.1/date Date 1 Date encoding type The date at which the Achievement Report is issued.

Person

URI

Label

Cardinality

Type

Usage

http://purl.org/dc/elements/1.1/identifier

Identifier

1..*

Literal

The student identification number. See HEAR section 1.4. See Usage for further guidance.

http://www.cabinetoffice.gov.uk/govtalk/schemasstandards/e-gif/datastandards/person_information/person_name/person_given_name.aspx

Person Given Name

1..*

Literal

The legal given name or forename of the individual (not common contractions). See HEAR section 1.2.

http://www.cabinetoffice.gov.uk/govtalk/schemasstandards/e-gif/datastandards/person_information/person_name/person_family_name.aspx

Person Family Name

1..*

Literal

The legal family name of the individual (as written). That part of a person's name which is used to describe family, clan, tribal group, or marital association. . See HEAR section 1.1.

http://www.cabinetoffice.gov.uk/govtalk/schemasstandards/e-gif/datastandards/person_information/person_birth_date.aspx

Person Birth Date

1

Date encoding type

Birth date of the learner. See HEAR section 1.3.

Provider

URI

Label

Cardinality

Type

Usage

http://xcri.org/profiles/catalog/1.1/identifier

Identifier

1

Literal

The identifier for the provider. See Usage Pofile for additional guidance

http://xcri.org/profiles/catalog/1.1/title

Title

1

Label encoding type

The title of the provider. See HEAR section 2.3.

http://xcri.org/profiles/catalog/1.1/description

Description

1

Description encoding type

Brief description of the status of the institution. See HEAR section 2.3.

Diploma

Course

URI

Label

Cardinality

Type

Usage

http://xcri.org/profiles/catalog/1.1/identifier

Identifier

1..*

Literal

The identifier for the programme. See Usage Pofile for additional guidance

http://xcri.org/profiles/catalog/1.1/title

Title

1

Label encoding type

The title of the programme. See HEAR section 2.2.

TBC#accessRequirements

Access Requirements

1

Description encoding type

Description of the programme access requirements. See HEAR section 3.3

http://xcri.org/profiles/catalog/1.1/description

Description

1

Description encoding type

Description of the programme requirements. See HEAR section 4.2

TBC#gradingScheme

Grading Scheme

1

Description encoding type

Information on the grading scheme used and grade distribution guidance. See HEAR section 4.4

TBC#furtherStudy

Access To Further Study

1

Description encoding type

Information on access to further study. See HEAR section 5.1

TBC#professionalStatus

Professional Status

1

Description encoding type

Information on the professional status of the qualification awarded by the programme. See HEAR section 5.2

TBC#Result

Result

0..1

Literal with optional status attribute

Overall classification of the qualification. See HEAR section 4.5. If omitted, the result is not known.

Presentation

URI

Label

Cardinality

Type

Usage

http://xcri.org/profiles/catalog/1.1/languageOfInstruction

Language of Instruction

1

Literal value formatted according to ISO-639

The primary language in which the programme is taught. See HEAR section 2.5.

http://xcri.org/profiles/catalog/1.1/languageOfAssessment

Language of Assessment

1

Literal value formatted according to ISO-639

The primary language in which the programme is assessed. See HEAR section 2.5

http://xcri.org/profiles/catalog/1.1/duration

Duration

1

Label encoding type

Official length of the programme. See HEAR section 3.2.

http://xcri.org/profiles/catalog/1.1/StudyMode

Study Mode

1

Label encoding type

The primary mode of study for the programme. See HEAR section 4.1

Qualification

URI

Label

Cardinality

Type

Usage

http://xcri.org/profiles/catalog/1.1/identifier

Identifier

1

Literal

The identifier for the qualification. See Usage Pofile for additional guidance

http://xcri.org/profiles/catalog/1.1/title

Title

1

Label encoding type

The title of the qualification; see HEAR section 2.1

http://xcri.org/profiles/catalog/1.1/level

Level

1

Literal

Level of qualification. See HEAR section 3.1

Transcript

The Transcript section of the HEAR represents the component structure of the programme. This section defines the profile for a traditional modular degree programme; however any structure may be used provided that it conforms to the XCRI specification.

Programme Year

Course

URI

Label

Cardinality

Type

Usage

http://xcri.org/profiles/catalog/1.1/identifier

Identifier

1

Literal

The identifier for the programme year. See Usage Pofile for additional guidance

http://xcri.org/profiles/catalog/1.1/title

Title

1

Label encoding type

The title of the year session, typically the primary subject studied

TBC#HasComponent

Has Component

1..*

http://xcri.org/profiles/catalog/1.1/course

A component of the programme year, typically representing a unit of study

Presentation

URI

Label

Cardinality

Type

Usage

http://xcri.org/profiles/catalog/1.1/StudyMode

Study Mode

1

Label encoding type

The primary mode of study for the programme year.

http://xcri.org/profiles/catalog/1.1/start

Start

1

Date encoding type

The date the programme year commenced from.

http://xcri.org/profiles/catalog/1.1/end

End

1

Date encoding type

The date the programme year ended.

Programme Unit

Course

URI

Label

Cardinality

Type

Usage

http://xcri.org/profiles/catalog/1.1/identifier

Identifier

1

Literal

The identifier for the programme unit. See Usage Pofile for additional guidance

http://xcri.org/profiles/catalog/1.1/title

Title

1

Label encoding type

The title of the programme unit.

TBC#Result

Result

0..1

Literal with optional status attribute

Result for the learner for the programme unit. If omitted, the result is not known

Credit

URI

Label

Cardinality

Type

Usage

http://xcri.org/profiles/catalog/1.1/level

Level

1

Literal

The level at which credit is awarded.

http://xcri.org/profiles/catalog/1.1/scheme

Scheme

1

Literal

The scheme under which credit is awarded. Typical values include "UK", and "ECTS"

http://xcri.org/profiles/catalog/1.1/value

Value

1

Literal

The value of credit awarded.

Usage guidelines

Identifiers

Learners

A number of options are available for personal identifiers, including:

The binding allows any number of identifiers to be offered for each learner. A HEAR XML document instance SHOULD provide both the HESA number AND the ULN.

Each identifier MUST be contained in its own Identifier element.

Each identifier type SHOULD use a specific value space declared in the document, e.g.

<identifier>909090900</identifier>
<identifier xsi:type="HesaUniqueStudentIdentifier">1234567890000</identifier>
<miap:UniqueLearnerNumber">1234567890</miap:UniqueLearnerNumber>

Where no identifier type is declared, then processors SHOULD assume that the content is an institution-specific local identifier.

Providers

The UK Provider Reference Number (UKPRN) is a unique identifier issued for each education provider in the UK, and is managed by the UK Register of Learning Providers. To use a UKPRN within the hear, the identifier for the Provider instance bound as follows:

<identifier xsi:type="UKPRN">123456</identifier>

To obtain the UKPRN for a university, go to http://www.ukrlp.co.uk/

Linking the HEAR with other documents

As the HEAR is typically a long-lived document with legal status, it is recommended that where any identifiers or URLs are included that these are under a long-term identifier/locator maintenance policy and will not be invalidated in the lifetime of the HEAR.

Where resources associated with the HEAR are of a more transient nature, it is recommended that institutions enable learners to make profiles available that point to these resources and to the HEAR separately rather than attempt to embed links within the HEAR itself, potentially invalidating it in the future.

Partial and incomplete HEAR documents

It is valid to create HEAR documents that are either interim results or are not complete reports; this is because:

Composite HEAR documents

Transcripts of components taught at another institution

Where a component of the transcript is offered by another institution, the HEAR document needs to ensure that the component makes reference to the Provider that offered the course, and may additionally provide a link to the related HEAR document from the other institution.

To represent this:

  1. The Presentation instance of the component (typically a year) MUST contain an XCRI venue property containing the basic details of the other institution such as the institution name.
  2. The Course instance for the component MAY also make use of the XCRI relation property to give the URL of the related HEAR document, where appropriate. Note that this is contingent on the model of HEAR document sharing adopted by the other institution (see Technical architecture considerations for implementing the HEAR).

The example below is based on the illustration in Appendix D of the HEAR report ("Year 3" from "University HIJK"):

       <transcript>
           <xcri:course>
               <xcri:title>Programme Yr 3 BA French and Management Studies</xcri:title>
               <xcri:relation>http://www.hijk.ac.uk/hear/1221211.xml</xcri:relation>
               <xcri:relation xsi:type="hasComponent">
                   <xcri:course>
                       <xcri:identifier>FREN 9001</xcri:identifier>
                       <xcri:title>Year Abroad (A)</xcri:title>
                       <result>P</result>
                       <xcri:credit>
                           <xcri:scheme>Default</xcri:scheme>
                           <xcri:level>N/A</xcri:level>
                           <xcri:value>60</xcri:value>
                       </xcri:credit>
                       <xcri:credit>
                           <xcri:scheme>ECTS</xcri:scheme>
                           <xcri:level>N/A</xcri:level>
                           <xcri:value>30</xcri:value>
                       </xcri:credit>
                   </xcri:course>
               </xcri:relation>
               <xcri:presentation>
                   <xcri:start>2004-01-01</xcri:start>
                   <xcri:end>2005-01-01</xcri:end>
                   <xcri:studyMode>Full-time</xcri:studyMode>
                   <xcri:venue>
                           <xcri:identifier xsi:type="UKPRN">900900</xcri:identifier>
                           <xcri:title>University of HIJK</xcri:title>
                   </xcri:venue>
               </xcri:presentation>
           </xcri:course>
       </transcript>

Transfer from another institution

In this scenario, the learner transfers from another institution, and the detailed component grades are either missing or have been replaced with an overall APL credit.

To represent this

  1. The Presentation instance of the component (typically a year) MUST contain an XCRI venue property containing the basic details of the other institution such as the institution name.
  2. The Course instance for the component MAY also make use of the XCRI relation property to give the URL of the related HEAR document, where appropriate. Note that this is contingent on the model of HEAR document sharing adopted by the other institution (see Technical architecture considerations for implementing the HEAR).
  3. The Course instance MUST contain a single child component Course to represent the set of transferred information, including credits.

The example below is based on the illustration given in Appendix D of he HEAR report ("Year 1" from "University EFG".)

       <transcript>
           <xcri:course>
               <xcri:title>Programme Year 1 BA French and Management</xcri:title>
               <xcri:relation>http://www.efg.ac.uk/hear/1221211.xml</xcri:relation>
               <xcri:relation xsi:type="hasComponent">
                   <xcri:course>
                       <xcri:title>Admitted with Advanced Standing From: University of EFG (see its transcript for further information)</xcri:title>
                       <xcri:credit>
                           <xcri:scheme>Default</xcri:scheme>
                           <xcri:level>C</xcri:level>
                           <xcri:value>120</xcri:value>
                       </xcri:credit>
                       <xcri:credit>
                           <xcri:scheme>ECTS</xcri:scheme>
                           <xcri:level>C</xcri:level>
                           <xcri:value>60</xcri:value>
                       </xcri:credit>
                   </xcri:course>
               </xcri:relation>
               <xcri:presentation>
                   <xcri:venue>
                           <xcri:identifier xsi:type="UKPRN">600600</xcri:identifier>
                           <xcri:title>University of EFG</xcri:title>
                   </xcri:venue>
               </xcri:presentation>
           </xcri:course>
       </transcript>

Recognition of prior learning

In this scenario, the learner begins the course with recognition of experiential or other learning from an employer or other organisation, and an overall APEL credit is given.

To represent this

  1. The Presentation instance of the component (typically a year) MUST contain an XCRI venue property containing the basic details of the other organisation such as the company name.
  2. The Course instance MUST contain a single child component Course to describe the set of recognised credits.

The example below illustrates this scenario:

   <transcript>
          <xcri:course>
              <xcri:title>Year 1 BA French and Management</xcri:title>
              <xcri:relation xsi:type="hasComponent">
                  <xcri:course>
                      <xcri:title>Recognition by APEL of workplace training and experience verified by LMN Limited.</xcri:title>
                      <xcri:credit>
                          <xcri:scheme>Default</xcri:scheme>
                          <xcri:level>C</xcri:level>
                          <xcri:value>120</xcri:value>
                      </xcri:credit>
                      <xcri:credit>
                          <xcri:scheme>ECTS</xcri:scheme>
                          <xcri:level>C</xcri:level>
                          <xcri:value>60</xcri:value>
                      </xcri:credit>
                  </xcri:course>
              </xcri:relation>
              <xcri:presentation>
                  <xcri:venue>
                          <xcri:identifier>http://www.lmn.co.uk</xcri:identifier>
                          <xcri:title>LMN Limited</xcri:title>
                  </xcri:venue>
              </xcri:presentation>
          </xcri:course>
      </transcript>

Binding

Mappings to other specifications

Examples